Names of Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff of the Department




Name of Staff

Teaching Staff
1. Nwanguma Bennett Chima Professor/Head of Department
2. Njoku, Obioma Uzoma Professor
3. Onwurah, Ikechukwu Noel Emmanuel Professor
4. Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka Professor
5. Ezeanyika, Lawrence Uchenna Sunday Professor
6. Onwubiko, Henry Amaechi Professor
7. Eze, Sabinus Oscar Onyebuchi Professor
8. Ogugua, Victor Nwadiogbu Professor
9. Anosike, Chioma Assumpta Professor
10. Joshua, Parker Elijah Asso. Professor
11. Enechi, Osmund Chukwuma Senior Lecturer
12. Awachie, Mabel Nkiruka Senior Lecturer
13. Ikwuagwu, Ogbonnaya Egbe Senior Lecturer
14. Ozougwu, Vincent Okechukwu Senior Lecturer
15. Njoku, Ugochi Olivia Senior Lecturer
16. Ossai, Emmanuel Chekwube Senior Lecturer
17. Nkwocha, Chinelo Chinenye Senior Lecturer
18. Nworah, Florence Nkechi Senior Lecturer
19. Ezugwu, Arinze Linus Senior Lecturer
20. Anaduaka, Emeka Godwin Senior Lecturer
21. Okagu, Innocent Uzochukwu Senior Lecturer
22. Nwankwo, Nicodemus Emeka Senior Lecturer
23. Nwiloh, B. I. Senior Lecturer
24. Iloabuchi, Kenechukwu Victor Lecturer II
25. Ozulumba, Tochukwu Jennifer Lecturer II
26. Nweze, Ekene John Lecturer II
27. Asomadu, Rita Onyekachukwu Lecturer II
28. Omeje, Kingsley Ozioma Lecturer II
29. Uchendu, Nene Orizu Lecturer II
30. Chukwuma, Ifeoma Felicia Lecturer II
31. Ezike, Tobechukwu Christian Lecturer II
32. Chibuogwu, Christian Chiazor Lecturer II
33. Okeke, Sunday Lecturer II
34. Okafor, Joshua Onyeagoziri Lecturer II
35. Nwachukwu, Justus Nmaduka Lecturer II
36. Udenwobele, Daniel Ikenna Graduate Assistant
37. Ezeroba, Timothy Princewill Chidike Graduate Assistant
38. Ononiwu, Chidimma Pamela Graduate Assistant
39. Nwanelo, Valentine Odirachukwumma Graduate Assistant
40. Madueke, Augustine Chidi Graduate Assistant


1. Agalamanyi, Ann Amaoge Principal Executive Officer
2. Eze, Anasthesia  Nwakaego Chukwuma Higher Executive Officer
3. Ezem, Emmanuel Prosper Executive Officer
4. Eze, Sussana Ifeoma Chief Cleaner Messenger


5. Chime, Jude Okwudili Principal Technologist
6. Onuigbo, Obiageli Theresa Principal Technologist
7. Chiaha, Nkechi Scholastica Technologist I
8. Onah Veronica Chinyere Senior Technical Officer
9. Okeoma, Emeka Ebenezer Senior Technical Officer
10. Okonkwo, Vincent Chukwualuka Senior Technical Officer
11. Chineke Jude Onyebuchi Higher Technical Officer
12. Omeh, Rosemary Nkeiruka Technical Officer
13. Okeke, Chinyere Paschaline Senior Laboratory Supervisor
14. Ayogu, Chioma Patricia Senior Laboratory Supervisor
15. Ugwuanyi, Helen Obioma Chief Laboratory Attendant
16. Ugwoke, Monica Ngozi Senior Laboratory Assistant
17. Anene, Celestina Ukoma Senior Laboratory Assistant
18. Onah, Ernest Kelechi Senior Laboratory Assistant


General Information and Academic Programme

Biochemistry is the science that enquires into the chemical constitution of living matter and the chemical processes by which the maintenance of life is accomplished in organisms. It furnishes the basic knowledge necessary for work in both the molecular and the cellular aspects of modern biology, hence, it is now widely recognized that an understanding of biochemical principles is vital for anybody wishing to proceed to advanced work in most areas of modern biology as well as in the pure and applied aspects of most of the life sciences.

 Philosophy, Objectives and Scope of Programme

The Department of Biochemistry aims at producing graduate biochemists who are not only equipped with knowledge in all the modern aspects of the discipline, but are also aware of the particular needs of Nigeria in particular and African in general in the area of their specialty. Thus the degree programme lays much stress on such locally important topics as nutrition and food science; the biochemistry of the soil and of locally significant micro-organisms; basis of chemotherapy, including African traditional medicine; human biochemical genetics particularly with respect to the West African sub-region; Lipids and lipoproteins and environmental Biochemistry in particular, the emphasis on meeting the needs of the environment is reflected in the inclusion of a ‘Research Project’ on a local biochemical topic as one of the compulsory courses in the final year of every Biochemistry students.

 Entry Requirements

For the Bachelor of Science degree in Biochemistry, the courses offered extend over a period of three years for direct entry students, and four years for students who gain admission through the entrance examination.

Direct entry candidates are required to have obtained the General Certificate of Education at Advanced Level or the Higher School Certificate at Principal Level in Chemistry, Biology (Botany or Zoology) and Physics plus Credit levels in Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics and English Language in the West African School Certificate or its equivalent, at the point of entry.

Entrance Examination candidates must possess passes at credit levels in Biology, Chemistry Physics, Mathematics and English Language in the West African School Certificate or its equivalent at the point of entry. Students from other departments who wish to take courses in Biochemistry should have attained at least credit standard in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Elementary Mathematics in the West African School Certificate or attained a similar standard at an equivalent examination. Transfer students from other departments must possess the departmental basic qualification at the point of first admission in their respective departmentsJob Opportunities

There is an acute shortage of biochemists at present to study the soils, fertilizers, feedstuffs, insecticides, plant and animal hormones, plant growth-regulators, herbicides, etc., particularly with special regard to the West African sub-region. Biochemical knowledge is lacking with regard to plant and animal nutrition and disease, the biochemical aspects of the germination, growth ripening and spoilage of fruits and crops, and several other such topics which are vitally important to agriculture and veterinary science in West Africa.

There is also a desperate need for trained personnel to conduct studies on tropical products of economic significance (such as hides and skin, commercially important natural fibres, timbers, gums, resins and other forest products), with particular reference to the biochemical problems connected with their production, utilization, storage, biodeterioration, etc., local industrial undertaking GSP, particularly those based on raw materials obtained from animal, plant and microbial sources (such as those industries concerned with foods beverages, cosmetics pharmaceutical, etc) are bound to need increasing numbers of biochemists in their product-development and quality-control laboratories. The opportunities outlined here are additional to the traditional areas in which Biochemists are needed including the Petrochemical Industry.

 Stress Areas

The stress areas of the Department are as follows:

  1. General Biochemistry and Bioinformatics
  2. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
  3. Medical Biochemistry
  4. Enzymology and Protein Biochemistry
  5. Plant, Food and Nutritional Biochemistry
  6. Lipid and Lipoprotein Biochemistry
  7. Pharmacological Biochemistry and Toxicology
  8. Immunology and Immunochemistry
  9. Membrane Bioenergetics and Environmental Biochemistry
  10. Biochemical Methods
  11. Seminar/Project




Year 1

1st Semester

Required Ancillary Courses

Course No.                  Course Title                                                                                        Units

BIO 151                       General Biology I                                                                                 3

CHM 101                     Basic Principles of Chemistry                                                               2

MTH 111                     General Mathematics I                                                                         3

MTH 121                     General Mathematics II                                                                        3

CHM 171                     Basic Practical Chemistry                                                                     2

PHY 111                      General Physics for Life Sciences I                                                        2

PHY 191                      Practical Physics I                                                                                  2

General Studies

GSP 101                      The Use of English I                                                                              2

GSP 111                      The Use of Library and Study Skills                                                       2

Total                                                                                                                                          21


2nd Semester

Required Ancillary Course

BIO 152 General Biology II 3
BIO 154 General Biology Practicals 2
PHY 112 General Physics for Life Science II 2
PHY 114 General Physics for Life Science III 2
CHM 112 Basic Principles of Physical Chemistry II 2
CHM 122 Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry III 2
General Studies

GSP 102



The Use of English II 2
Total                                                                                                               15



Year 2

1st Semester

Major Courses

GSP 201 Basic Concepts and Theory of Peace 2
Total 22

2nd Semester


Major Courses

BCH 202                      General Biochemistry II                                                                        3


Required Ancillary Courses

CS 304                         Computer Applications                                                                         2

STA 205                      Statistics for Agricultural and Biological Sciences II                               2

MCB 202                     General Microbiology II                                                                          3

CHM 222                     General Organic Chemistry II                                                                  2

CHM 274                     Practical Inorganic Chemistry I                                                                2

CHM 272                     Practical Physical Chemistry I                                                                   2


General Studies

GSP 208                      Nigerian People and Culture                                                                      2

GSP 202                      Issues in Peace and Conflict Resolution Studies                                         2

Total                                                                                                                                                20

Year 3

1st Semester

Major Courses

Course No.                  Course Title                                                                                        Units

BCH 301                      Enzymology                                                                                         3

BCH 311                      Membrane Biochemistry                                                                      1

BCH 351                      Primary Metabolic Pathways I                                                               2

BCH 353                      Primary Metabolic Pathways III                                                              2

BCH 381                      Methods in Biochemistry                                                                        2

BCH 390                      Students Industrial Work Experience                                                       3




Required Ancillary Courses

MCB 341                     Immunology and Immunochemistry                                                        4

CHM 311                     Physical and Structural Chemistry I                                                          2

BIO 351                       General Genetics                                                                                      2

CED 341                      Introduction to Entrepreneurship                                                             2

Total                                                                                                                                            23                                           

Second Semester

Major Courses

BCH 332                      Bioenergetics                                                                                          1

BCH 342                      Nutritional Biochemistry                                                                         1

BCH 352                      Primary Metabolic Pathways II                                                                2

BCH 354                      Primary Metabolic Pathways IV                                                               2

BCH 382                      General Biochemical Methods                                                                 2

CHM 374                     Applied Spectroscopy                                                                              2


Required Ancillary Courses

CHM 312                     Physical and Structural Chemistry II                                                        2

CHM 313                     Physical and Structural Chemistry III                                                       2

CHM 322                     Organic Chemistry II                                                                                2

CHM 323                     Organic Chemistry III                                                                               2

MCB 312                     Microbial Genetics/Molecular Biology                                                     4

CED 342                      Business Development and Management                                                 2

Total                                                                                                                                               24

Year 4

1st Semester

Major Courses

Course No.                                                                 

BCH 341


Course Title


Food Biochemistry                                                                              





BCH 401 Advanced Enzymology 2


BCH 411


Biosynthesis of Macromolecules 2
BCH 421 Tissue Biochemistry 2


BCH 431 Bioinorganic Chemistry 2


BCH 471 Industrial Biochemistry 3


BCH 481 Biochemical Reasoning 1
BCH 491 Special Topics/Seminar in Biochemistry 2





2nd Semester

Major Courses

BCH 412 Genetic Engineering 2


BCH 452


Metabolic Regulations 2
BCH 462 Plant Biochemistry 2
BCH 422


Pharmacological Biochemistry 2
BCH 482 Advanced Biochemical Methods 2


BCH 492 Research Project 6


Total                                                                                         16








 Year 1

1st Semester

Major Courses

Course No.                  Course Title                                                                                        Units

BCH 201                      General Biochemistry                                                                           3

CHM 201                     General Inorganic Chemistry                                                                 2

CHM 211                     General Physical Chemistry                                                                  2

CHM 221                     General Organic Chemistry I                                                                 2

CHM 273                     Practical Organic Chemistry I                                                                2

CS 101                         Introduction to Computer Science                                                          2

MCB 201                     General Microbiology I                                                                         3

STA 202                      Statistics for Agricultural and Biology Science I                                     2

Required Ancillary Courses

General Studies

GSP 207                      Logic, Philosophy and Human Existence                                                           2

GSP 101                      The Use of English I                                                                             2

Total                                                                                                                22

2nd Semester

Major Courses

BCH 202                      General Biochemistry II                                                                        3

Required Ancillary Courses

CS 202                         Applications to Computer                                                                     2

STA 205                      Statistics for Agricultural and Biology Sciences II                                  2

MCB 202                     General Microbiology II                                                                       3

CHM 222                     General Organic Chemistry II                                                                2

CHM 274                     Practical Inorganic Chemistry I                                                             2

CHM 272                     Practical Physical Chemistry I                                                               2

General Studies                                                 

GSP 208                      Nigerian Peoples and Culture                                                                2

GSP 102                      The Use of English II                                                                            2

Total                                                                                                                20

Year 2

1st Semester

Major Courses

Course No.                  Course Title                                                                                        Unit

BCH 301                      Enzymology                                                                                         3

BCH 311                      Membrane Biochemistry                                                                       1

BCH 351                      Primary Metabolic Pathways I                                                               2

BCH 353                      Primary Metabolic Pathways III                                                            2

BCH 381                      Methods in Biochemistry                                                                      2

BCH 390                      Students Industrial Work Experience                                                     3

Required Ancillary Courses

MCB 341                     Immunology and Immunochemistry                                                       4

CHM 311                     Physical and Structural Chemistry I                                                       2

BIO 351                       General Genetics                                                                                  2

CED 341                      Introduction to Entrepreneurship                                                           2

Total                                                                                                                23


Second Semester

Major Courses

BCH 332                      Bioenergetics                                                                                       1

BCH 342                      Nutritional Biochemistry                                                                       1

BCH 352                      Primary Metabolic Pathways II                                                              2

BCH 354                      Primary Metabolic Pathways IV                                                            2

BCH 382                      General Biochemical Methods                                                               2

Required Ancillary Courses

CHM 312                     Physical and Structural Chemistry II                                                         2

CHM 313                     Physical and Structural Chemistry III                                                     2

CHM 322                     Organic Chemistry II                                                                            2

CHM 323                     Organic Chemistry III                                                                           2

CHM 374                     Applied Spectroscopy                                                                           2

MCB 312                     Microbial Genetics/Molecular Biology                                                   4

CED 342                      Business Development and Management                                                2

Total                                                                                                                24


Year 3

1st Semester

Major Courses

Course No.                  Course Title                                                                                        Units

BCH 341                      Food Biochemistry                                                                               1

BCH 401                      Advanced Enzymology                                                                         2

BCH 411                      Biosynthesis of Macromolecules                                                           2

BCH 421                      Tissue Biochemistry                                                                             2

BCH 431                      Bioinorganic Chemistry                                                                        2

BCH 471                      Industrial Biochemistry                                                                         3

BCH 481                      Biochemical Reasoning                                                                        1

BCH 491                      Special Topics/Seminar in Biochemistry                                                2

Total                                                                                                                15 


2nd Semester

Major Courses

BCH 412                      Genetic Engineering                                                                             2

BCH 452                      Metabolic Regulations                                                                          2

BCH 462                      Plant Biochemistry                                                                               2

BCH 422                      Pharmacological Biochemistry                                                              2

BCH 482                      Advanced Biochemical Methods                                                            2

BCH 492                      Research Project                                                                                   6

Total                                                                                                               16









The cell environment: Water and solutes: The unique properties of water, H-bonds, electrostatic interactions, Van der Walls attraction; Alkalinity and acidity, pH and pK and their influence on cellular activities; Physiological buffers. Cell Macromolecules: Structure, properties and functions of carbohydrates; Structure, properties and functions of lipids; Structure, properties and functions of proteins; Structure, properties and functions of nucleic acids. Cell structure and function: Structure and function of major cell organelles: Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Biological membranes: Organization, architecture, properties and functions; The cytoplasm: Mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, ribosomes, lysosomes, endosome; The nucleus: The nuclear envelope, chromatin, chromosomes, nucleolus, etc.


Protein Structure and Function: Amino acids and the primary structure of proteins; Levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures) Haemoglobinopathies. Functional classification of proteins: Fibrous proteins: properties and functions (the role of the α- helix and β – pleated sheet, covalent cross-links and the unique features of collagen); Globular proteins: properties and functions (the hierarchical nature), importance of hydrophobic interactions and H-bonds; Protein sequence analysis (protein databases, protein sequence similarity searches, protein modeling); Protein folding diseases, molten globules; Prions; Isolation and purification of protein; The ligand binding, independent site cooperativty, oxygen–Binding proteins: Properties and functions (principle of allosterism, cooperativity, oxygen-binding curves, the Bohr Effect, Hill plots, Adair equation); Catalytic properties: Enzymes; Principles of enzyme action: Concept of activation energy; Acid –base catalysis; Tertiary structure interactions: enzymes actives sites; Classification and nomenclature of enzymes active sites; The Michaelis-Menten equation; Estimation of kinetic parameters-km, Vmax; Enzyme inhibition and activation; Roles of Co-factors and Co-enzymes in catalysis; Zymogene Activation: The pancreatic enzymes and coagulation factors.



Structure, composition and function of biological membrane including homoeoviscous adaptation; Isolation, characterization and classification of membrane; Chemistry and biosynthesis of membrane; Molecular organization of membrane components; Natural and artificial and membrane bilayer-fluid mosaic model; Membrane transport system-active versus passive transport systems; Transport of sugars and amino acids and ionophores.



An introduction to the theory application of physical and chemical methods of determining the constituents of food; Food processing, preservation and storage of traditional foods; Roots and stem tubers, fruit and fruit drinks, seeds and grains, green vegetables; Food poisoning and intoxication, prevention and cure



Degradation and digestion of carbohydrates-sugars, storage polysaccharides and cell walls; Reactions of sugars; Glycogenolysis; Glycolysis; Tricarboxylic acid cycle; The glyoxylate pathway; The pentose phosphate pathway; Cori cycle and Calvin pathway; Gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis; Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism


Amino acids as building blocks of proteins: Covalent of backbone of proteins: Amino acid composition; Protein isolation: Fractionation, purification and characterization; Biological functions of proteins; Oxidative degradation of amino acids: Metabolism of the carbon units; Biosynthesis of amino acids and some derivatives; The urea cycle: Metabolism of inorganic nitrogen; Disorders of amino acid metabolism



Principles of instrumentation: Centrifugation; Cell fractionation technique and instrumentation; Application of centrifugation. Chromatography: Planar chromatography (paper and thin-layer) column chromatography; Ion-exchanger and Gel exclusion chromatography; Gas chromatography and High Performance Liquid chromatography; Affinity chromatography and immunoadsorption. Electrophoresis; Theory of electrophoresis; Methods of electrophoresis-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) Nucleic acid sequencing gels, Agarose gel electrophoresis; Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, 2-dimentional electrophoresis of protein, Capillary electrophoresis, immunoelectophoresis, Instrumentation and analysis of electrophoresis results. Spectroscopy: UV-visible absorption spectophotometry: Principle, Instrumentation and application; Fluorescence spectrophotometry: principle, instrumentation application. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry. Radioisotope Techniques: Overview of radioactivity; Detection and measurement of radioactivity. Application of radioactivity and safety issues. Molecular Technique: Hybridization techniques; Polymerase Chain reaction. Immunochemical techniques. Immunochemical and immunoblotting; Use of Computers in Research Bioinformatics.



Steady state enzyme kinetics; Kinetics of multisubstrate; Regulatory enzymes: molecular models for allosterism: multienzyme complexes; Chemical basis of enzyme catalysis; Enzyme reaction mechanisms e. g. ribonuclease, chymotrysin, lysozyme, LDH, etc; Stite-directed mutagenesis



Biochemistry of kidney; Biochemistry of liver; Biochemistry of muscle; Biochemistry of adipose; Biochemistry of vision.            General metabolism of the brain: Neuronal Biochemistry; Biochemistry of reproductive tissues. Detoxification and excretion in tissues



The relationship between the physiochemical properties and biological functions of inorganic ions; Ligand complexes and their biochemical significance; Electroyte Metabolism. Nitrogen fixation sulphur and phosphate cycles



Introduction: Overview and definition. Biotechnology and the Developing world. Overview microbial physiology and genetics. Substrates for Biotechnology: A Biomass strategy; Natural raw materials; Raw materials and the future of biotechnology.Biological fuel generation: Photosynthesis; Sources of biomass; Microbial recovery of petroleum. Genetics and biotechnology: Industrial Genetics; Protoplast and cell fusion technology; Genetic Engineering. Bioprocess/Fermentation Biotechnology; Principle of microbial growth. The bioreactor and media design for fermentation; Scaling up; Down-Stream Processing. Enzyme Technology: Industrial production of enzymes Immobilization of enzymes. Biotechnology and Medicine: Pharmaceuticals and Biopharmaceuticals; Antibiotics, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies; Gene theraphy. Environmental Biotechnology: Microbial ecology; Landfill technology and composting; Bioremediation; Monitoring of pollutants; Environmental sustainability and cleaner technology. Food and beverage Biotechnology: Enzymes and food processing; Production of sweeteners; Production of other microbial-derived food. Biotechnology in agricultural and forestry industries: Plant biotechnology; Forestry biotechnology; Biological control; Animal biotechnology. Protection of Biotechnological inventions: Licensing and production for trade secret. Protection of patents. Safety issues in biotechnology: Release of modifies organism: foods. Pathogenicity of organisms; Ethical and safety issues in biochemistry. Biotechnology and society: Public perception of biotechnology; Ethical and moral issues in biotechnology.



Introduction to biochemical research and reasoning: Choice and statement of research problem; Searching the literature and referencing; Design and execusion of experiment. The art of scientific investigation: Recognition and exploitation of chance; Precaution and use of hypothesis; Imagination and intuition; Reason, observation, difficulties and strategy. Analysis of experimental data: Errors of measurement; Statistical treatment of data; Reporting the result of research. Scientific writing: Writing a research proposal and application for grant; Writing a thesis: Writing a conference or journal article/referencing. Research ethics and misconduct: Working with animals and human subjects; Scientific misconduct – Data fabrication and falsification; Wrong assignment of authorship credits and misuse of research funds; Reporting and handling of misconduct cases. Application of computers in biochemical research.







Enzymes: Introduction to Biological Catalysis; Nature, functions and classification of enzymes; Factors affecting enzyme action. Energy Metabolism: Introductory bioenergetics/energy-rich compounds; Carbohydrate Metabolism – Glycolysis and Pentose Phosphate Pathway; The Krebs cycle and the glyoxylate cycle. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.  Separation of Macromolecules: Chromatographic methods: Thin layer chromatography, Gel filtration, Ion exchange chromatography, Affinity chromatography; Eletrophoretic methods: Nucleic acid gel electrophoresis, Electrophoretic sizing of protein, Isoelectric focusing.



High energy compounds; complex reactions; chemical potentials and reductions. Electron  transport system and oxidation phosphorylation. Regulation of ATP production. Hypothesis/Theories of oxidative phosphorylation.



Macromolecules: Proteins; Protein quality, requirement, deficiency nitrogen                                                  balance; Lipids: fatty acids (essential and non essential). Carbohydrates. Dietary Reference Standards: New terminologies for assessment of nutrient intake: Expected Average Requirement (EAR), Dietary Reference Values (DRV); The Vitamins; Minerals and Trace elements. Measuring Food Intake: Direct and indirect measurement, household food surveys etc. Nutrition Research Methodology: Design and Statistical Analysis; In vitro studies, animal models, human studies. Molecular Aspects of Nutrition: Genetic variations in response to nutrients. Nutrient regulation of gene expression. Application of Nutritional Knowledge: Nutrition in Pregnancy and lactation; Diet and coronary heart disease; Nutrition of the aged; Diet and cancer. Nutrition and the immune system. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition, undernutrition and overnutrition; Eating disorders: Anorexia, Bulimia, binge eating; Metabolic disorders: Diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis, etc. Food allergy and intolerance; Public Health Nutrition: Nutritional epidemiology; Assessment of Nutritional status in individual and populations; Metabolic disorders: Anorexia, Bulimia, binge eating.



Classification and functions of lipids-fatty acids, triacylglycerol glycogycerols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, waxes and prostaglandins; Lipids micelles, monolayers and bilayer, lipoprotein systems; Oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids. Formation of ketone bodies. Integration of lipid metabolism; Cholesterol metabolism; Metabolism of steroids



Genome Organization; Biosynthesis of proteins; Metabolism, structure, properties and functions of nucleosides and nucleotide; Metabolism of Purine and Pyrimidines; Abnormalities in nucleic metabolism, xeroderma pigmentation and skin cancer.



DNA Manipulation: Overview of DNA structure and properties; History of recombinant DNA technology; Extraction and synthesis of DNA; Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tools for DNA Manipulation: Restriction endnucleases and DNA ligase Vectors: Cloning Vectors, Plasmid vectors, Phage vector Cosmid Vectors; Transfer of foreign DNA into mammalian cells; animals; Southern blotting and related techniques; Constructing a DNA Library; DNA sequencing; Site-specific mutagenesis. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology in Medicine and Agriculture: The human Genome Project; Gene therapy; Nuclear transfer technology (Cloning) Molecular Pharming; Genetically modified foods, plants and animals; Ethical issues associated with DNA Manipulation.



Cellular metabolism in infected cells; Biochemical aspects of host parasite relationship; Metabolic factors effecting chemotherapeutic agents; Theories of the mechanisms of druGSP efficacy and other factors affecting drug efficacy; The physiological and biochemical action of some selected druGSP; Nigerian traditional medicinal plants in the management and therapy of common ailments in Nigeria, malaria, sickle cell anemia, common cold, beertitis, etc.; Xenobiotic metabolism and excretion  Pharmacogenetics; Biochemical toxicology.



The relationship of Krebs’ cycle to protein, carbonhydrate, lipids and nucleic acids metabolism. Integration of metabolic pathways; turn-over rates and metabolic pools. Regulations of enzymes of metabolic pathways feedback inhibition versus synthesis. Catabolite repression, and product repression the lactose operon and arabinose operon. Identification of different regulatory mechanisms in metabolic pathway.



Organization of plant cells; Alkaloids and flavonoids; Photosynthesis; Plant hormones: structure-function relationship; Metabolism of auxins, gibberlins and cytokinin. Biosynthesis of carotenoid pigments. Biochemistry of plant development, the plant wall cell structure, formation and growth in lignin formation. Free amino acids, pyimidines, purines and nucleosides in plants. Synthesis growth regulators and herbicides.