The history of the Faculty dates back to 1960, the year the University of Nigeria was established. In its earliest form, the department of Botany (now Plant Science & Biotechnology) and Zoology (Zoology & Environmental Biology) were established under what used to be known as the Faculty of Science. Other departments within the Faculty included the departments of Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics/Statistics/Astronomy and Physics.

The earliest move towards establishing an autonomous Faculty of Biological Sciences was made in the 1966/67 session, when a Division of Biological Science was created within the Faculty of Sciences. In the new arrangement, the departments of Botany and Zoology co-existed with the newly created units of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacy within the Division of Biological Sciences. These three units were to become full fledged departments in the 1970/71 session. Soon after, in the 1973/74 session, the division of Biological Sciences was upgraded and renamed the Faculty of Biological Sciences, while still retaining Pharmacy as a department. As part of the efforts aimed at creating an independent Faculty of Pharmacy, the faculty was renamed the Faculty of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences in the 1976/77 academic year.

The Faculty of Biological Sciences, as it is currently constituted (comprising the departments of Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology and Zoology), was created four sessions later in the 1980/81 when a full faculty status was conferred on the department of Pharmaceutical Sciences.