The history of the Faculty dates back to September 1961 a year after the establishment of the University of Nigeria in October 1960. In its earliest form, the departments of Botany and Zoology were established under what used to be known as the Faculty of Science. Other departments within the Faculty of Science included the departments of Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics and Physics.

The earliest move towards establishing an autonomous Faculty of Biological Sciences was made in the 1966/67 session, when a Division of Biological Sciences was created within the Faculty of Science. In the new arrangement, the departments of Botany and Zoology co-existed with the newly created units of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacy within the Division of Biological Sciences. These three units were to become full-fledged departments in the 1970/71 session.

Soon after, in the 1973/74 session, the division of Biological Sciences was upgraded and renamed the Faculty of Biological Sciences, while still retaining Pharmacy as a department. As part of efforts aimed at creating an independent Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Faculty was renamed the Faculty of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences in the 1976/77 academic year.

With the independence of Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and The Faculty of Biological Sciences from the Faculty of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences in the 1980/81, Faculty of Biological Sciences now had four departments (Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology and Zoology).

Following the current trends in curriculum update for programmes to embraced current cutting edge in knowledge and training the Senate and the NUC approved the curriculum update and change of nomenclature in 2011/12 session, thus the Faculty as presently constituted consist of the departments of Biochemistry, Microbiology, Plant Science and Biotechnology and Zoology and Environmental Biology.